So I’ve been thinking a lot about competency-based education – the idea that learners should be able to progress through a flexible map of skills or concepts or dispositions, tracking progress and reflecting as they go, with as much choice as is reasonable on the timing and nature of the learning, on a time scale that’s right for them. Simple… right? I’m playing with some ways of piloting the idea in my classroom and I keep thinking about gaming in this process. Most video games have levels or achievements, and gamifying education is based on the inherent motivation built into video games. Every time you fail a level, you get to try again. You try until you succeed. Success metrics are clear, and when you succeed you go on to the next level. I like playing Minecraft with my kids, and we have fun finding our way through the Minecraft achievement map. The skills are really clear-cut and the achievements have to be done in order.
I wonder if I can apply the gamification principles to a class I teach. I’m experimenting with OneNote Class Notebook to push an achievement map out to my students. I need the map to be flexible – I don’t have it all written right now, and I’m not sure a competency map should be articulated completely from beginning to end. Do you want your child’s educational path pre-mapped from K through 12 or do you want them to be able to take unexpected turns as needed? I’d like to be able to push achievement challenges to the students as they come up, and maybe assign achievements flexibly depending on student choice and need.
I can push the achievements out as documents that contain a checklist, maybe a place to paste some code, and a reflection from the student. I can respond to their achievements and use this as the basis for conferencing with them about their learning.
For example, as my first two achievements for kids:
This semester, I wouldn’t use the achievement map as a grade, but I could leave the door open for it as an assessment tool in the future. How far would a student need to progress through the map to “pass” the class and move on to the next one? This is something I hope to answer after this semester.
I really wish I could create a clickable map like the Minecraft one, where you could hover over a box and it would tell you about the achievement, or click on the box to submit an entry to pass the achievement. When you passed one, the following achievements would be enabled. I know this is doable, but time and 217 students and so many preps and…. it’ll have to wait for a break, unless someone has created a tool like this and I just don’t know about it. Any badging or achievement-mapping tools out there that I should learn about?
What do you think? Have you ever gamified a graded class? What structures did you use and what should I fix before diving into this?
A couple of years ago, one of my former students came to visit. He brought business cards and a selection of little printed circuit-boards, or PCB’s. My questioning turned into a lesson in which a 15-year-old kid taught me how to install some circuit-designing software, create my own circuit board, export the design and e-mail it to a factory in China where the boards would be manufactured and mailed to me. It was one of the most empowering things I’ve ever learned! I feel I got some valuable consulting work from this student, and he provided it for free. What a generous gift and a valuable example of a teacher and student learning together.
I found out since that time that you can actually etch your own printed circuit boards at home, for quick prototyping. In electronics class, my co-worker Tracey and I created an engineering project for the students: design or modify a small, rechargeable LED-based lantern that works. This semester, I thought I would offer the opportunity for students to learn to etch their own PCB’s if they wanted to do it for their design. This was a rich and challenging project, and I want to share how we did this with middle school kids – with some notes of caution. It’s hard to do in a big group. I was grateful to have Tracey’s presence to work with most of the class on an alternate lesson while I took small groups to work on PCB design and etching. It was failure-prone and high-frustration, but also high-reward. Here’s how we did it.
First, the students need to design their circuit and generate a high quality, printable image of the copper traces. I used Fritzing, a free program that is fairly easy to use. I taught the students how to lay out a simple parallel circuit with resistors and LED’s. The components can be either surface mount (SMD) or through-hole (THT), but you want to choose Through-hole. Pay attention to the pin spacing to make sure it matches the components you have. In our case, we needed 3 mm spacing for the LED’s and 400 mils (these are thousandths of an inch, not the same as mm) for the resistors. I don’t know why the default units were different. I added a couple of via’s to connect to the switch and battery. Choose the “home-etched” setting for via’s to make them a little bigger.
Students could add as many resistor/LED pairs as they wanted, and rearrange them as needed. Some students created some interesting layouts for their PCB.
Next, we had to export the file to a high quality PDF. In Fritzing, choose File –> Export –> As Image –> PDF.
I stitched together a couple of methods from online articles for the etching part. This article from Hackaday used the magazine page transfer method, and it worked all right with some cautions.
Here are the supplies you need for this step..
- Glossy magazine paper and a laser printer. We found the alumni magazine from my university works well! Its 8 1/2 by 11 size and nice sturdy paper loaded and printed in the laser printer perfectly. We had some success with catalogs pulled from my mailbox too, although the paper was thinner so it tended to jam.
- One-sided copper clad PCB. You can get lots of this very cheap on eBay.
- An iron and ironing board (we borrowed these from the family consumer science teacher)
- A scotch-brite scrubbing pad.
You need to load the glossy paper into your laser printer and print the PDF of the copper traces. Fritzing will export a lot of files into a folder – print the one that ends in “copper_top_mirror”. You might have to try a few times before you get a nice printout on the magazine paper.
Buff the copper-clad PCB with the scotch-brite pad, until it’s roughed up a little.
Turn the iron to its hottest setting, and make sure there’s no water in the iron. Put the magazine paper with the image on it face-down onto the copper clad. Push down HARD with the iron for a full two minutes. Then move the iron around still pressing down hard, for 4 more minutes. This process sometimes took 4 tries to get a good transfer and was really difficult with a number of groups to work with. Imagine it takes pressure on every wire trace in order to transfer it from the paper to the board, and visualize how you have to press the iron down to make this happen.
Inspect the copper clad to make sure the image transferred with no thin or broken spots. We attempted to fix a couple of the designs with Sharpie, but it really didn’t work well. Better to transfer properly the first time.
Now you’re ready for the etching. For this part, I used the second half of the instructions from Blondihack. Some blogs recommend using muriatic acid, but with middle-schoolers the normal kitchen chemicals are the way to go here. You will not regret using plain old vinegar. You really should use a proper science lab with fume hoods, sinks and safety equipment. At the very least, make sure you have safety goggles and nitrile gloves for everyone, and access to a sink. To do the etching, you need:
- White vinegar
- Household hydrogen peroxide
- Some salt
- Foam brushes
- Plastic tubs
- Measuring cups and spoons
- Safety goggles and gloves
- A timer
- Acetone (nail polish remover)
It’s pretty simple. Pour equal portions of hydrogen peroxide and vinegar into a shallow plastic tub. Add about a teaspoon of salt and stir it gently. When the salt is dissolved, put the PCB into the solution. You’ll see a film of yellowish gunk appear on the board, and over time the liquid will turn blue. About once a minute, use the foam brush to wipe the gunk off. It took us about 50 minutes to complete the etching. When you’re close to done, the edges of your board will be free of copper. You’ll know you’re done when all of the copper is dissolved except for what’s under the black toner. When you’re at this point, rinse the board with lots of water. We washed the remaining etching solution down the drain with lots and lots of fresh water.
When the board was rinsed, we took paper towels and some nail polish remover (acetone) and scrubbed the rest of the toner off the board until the copper was visible.
I used Blondihack’s method for drilling holes with a Dremel tool. I did the drilling and chose not to let students use the Dremel. It has the potential to really hurt you and this step requires a steady hand. Get your inner brain surgeon ready.
For the drilling, you’ll need:
- A Dremel rotary tool
- Quick-change Collet nuts (you need the smallest one) or a 1/32 inch drill chuck
- A 1/32 inch drill bit (I bought this set)
- A clamp and a piece of scrap wood
I recommend clamping your PCB to the table on top of scrap wood. You really want to make sure it doesn’t move around. Wear the safety goggles. Use the 1/32 inch drill bit and carefully drill a hole in each location on the PCB.
Next the students can solder the components onto the PCB. You can only solder them onto the copper trace, not onto the blank side of the board. Clip on the battery and test it out! Students sometimes had to use solder or jumper wires to fix locations where the copper traces were broken or thin. They cut the boards down to size with tin snips (fairly cheap at Home Depot) and sanded them when needed.
The groups that had fewer problems were able to finish their circuit boards in 3 class periods, but some student groups took up to 6 class periods. These groups had to re-do steps along the way, usually in the printing and transferring, but sometimes in the soldering as well.
It was a supremely rewarding process. The students were so proud of their work. We all learned a lot about how printed circuit boards are made, and I think the kids felt as empowered as I did when I made my first PCB with that student so long ago. Students stayed after class and after school, trying over and over to get the process right. They really wanted to finish it once they started.
I would strongly recommend having extra adult supervision if you try this activity with kids. Six students at a time seemed to be my capacity – consider bringing in parent volunteers or community members and training them on what to do. Plan ahead for science lab space, drilling and soldering, and for how you’re going to manage failures, because they will happen. It’s part of engineering.
If you try PCB etching with your engineering students, I’d love to hear from you. What went well? What would you do differently? What did I miss that I could be doing better?
In my 6th grade tech class, called Web 2.0, my colleagues convinced me to include some keyboarding practice in the curriculum. It’s not a fun topic to teach, but it is a really important life skill and it’s not taught in any of the kids’ other core classes. One of my fellow tech teachers had a great idea to have students keep a spreadsheet of their keyboarding speeds throughout the quarter. The students take a 1-minute test every day and log their score in the spreadsheet. We use the sheet to teach students about using formulas, and it’s a good daily reflection tool on their growth.
We use NitroType and typing.com as tools for practice. NitroType is really engaging and I really like the drills on typing.com.
I have the students calculate their average speed (the average formula), their growth (using max, min, and subtraction), and how many times they got 25 words per minute or more (using the “countif” formula). A finished spreadsheet looks like this.
Here’s what I find fascinating. I think teaching keyboarding is really boring. The online tools make it bearable. I put on my game face and practice with the students, and challenge them to race me to keep myself engaged in it. The students, however, LOVE it, and I think what they like about it is that they track their progress with a number. They know when they’ve improved. The goal is crystal clear and they can tell instantly if they’ve met it.
At the end of the quarter, I asked the students to reflect on whether they met either the goal I set for them (which was to gain 10WPM and be over 25WPM at least once), and whether they felt they had met their personal goal. These were some of their comments.
“I Met my score :)”
“I love TYPING”
“My goal was to increase by 10 words per minute. I started at 27 words per minute and slowly increased and got better until I got to 39 words per minute which was past my goal”
“My goal was to get to 35 WPM and I passed it by 10, I am really happy.”
“My goal was to get more accurate and more comfortable without looking at the keys. This I think I did improve on.”
“I improved so much!!!!!!!!”
“I think I’ve really improved with my keyboarding. I think I met my goal because I beat 25 by at least 20 and all of my scores were in the green. I will continue to practice keyboarding as I believe it will help me in the future. The time we had in class helped my improve and I fell like I’m 10 times faster than I was last year. Even if that is an exaggeration I really mean it when I say I got a lot better, so thank you for making me not only a better typer, but a better student as well.”
“I got to 25! That was very exiting because I am not that fast at typing! and I made my spread sheet very colorful!”
“I am proud of where I am with my typing and gained ten WPM”
Isn’t it interesting how motivating it is to have a clear goal and know immediately if you’ve met it or are improving? I see this every quarter. I wish I had a way to give students this instant satisfaction in classes in which progress is slower and proceeds over the course of a project. Learning coding can feel like this if you do activities like an Hour of Code, but what about learning in a creative problem-solving setting, where you have to investigate, discover, create, try and fail, iterate, gather data and perfect an actual product? Can I help students reflect on their day-to-day growth and their short-term goal setting as a motivational tool? I’m sure I can facilitate this by putting some good reflection tools in place. Let’s make this a New Year’s Resolution – I will help my students become motivated and reflective learners, and to track their own progress to make them feel the same sense of satisfaction my keyboarding students get.